In this post, I link to and excerpt from 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines [PubMed Abstract] [Full-Text HTML] [Full-Text PDF].
All that follows is from the above resource.
- Table of Contents
- Top 10 Take-Home Messages
- 1. Introduction
- 2. Definition of HF
- 3. Epidemiology and Causes of HF
- 4. Initial and Serial Evaluation
- 5. Stage A (Patients at Risk for HF)
- 6. Stage B (Patients With Pre-HF)
- 7. Stage C HF
- 8. Stage D (Advanced) HF
- 9. Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated HF
- 10. Comorbidities in Patients With HF
- 11. Special Populations
- 12. Quality Metrics and Reporting
- 13. Goals of Care
- 14. Recommendation for Patient-Reported Outcomes and Evidence Gaps and Future Research Directions
Top 10 Take-Home Messages
Guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) now includes 4 medication classes that include sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i).
SGLT2i have a Class of Recommendation 2a in HF with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Weaker recommendations (Class of Recommendation 2b) are made for ARNi, ACEi, ARB, MRA, and beta blockers in this population.
New recommendations for HFpEF are made for SGLT2i (Class of Recommendation 2a), MRAs (Class of Recommendation 2b), and ARNi (Class of Recommendation 2b). Several prior recommendations have been renewed including treatment of hypertension (Class of Recommendation 1), treatment of atrial fibrillation (Class of Recommendation 2a), use of ARBs (Class of Recommendation 2b), and avoidance of routine use of nitrates or phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (Class of Recommendation 3: No Benefit).
Improved LVEF is used to refer to those patients with previous HFrEF who now have an LVEF >40%. These patients should continue their HFrEF treatment.
Value statements were created for select recommendations where high-quality, cost-effectiveness studies of the intervention have been published.
Amyloid heart disease has new recommendations for treatment including screening for serum and urine monoclonal light chains, bone scintigraphy, genetic sequencing, tetramer stabilizer therapy, and anticoagulation.
Evidence supporting increased filling pressures is important for the diagnosis of HF if the LVEF is >40%. Evidence for increased filling pressures can be obtained from noninvasive (eg, natriuretic peptide, diastolic function on imaging) or invasive testing (eg, hemodynamic measurement).
Patients with advanced HF who wish to prolong survival should be referred to a team specializing in HF. A HF specialty team reviews HF management, assesses suitability for advanced HF therapies, and uses palliative care including palliative inotropes where consistent with the patient’s goals of care.
Primary prevention is important for those at risk for HF (stage A) or pre-HF (stage B). Stages of HF were revised to emphasize the new terminologies of “at risk” for HF for stage A and pre-HF for stage B.
Recommendations are provided for select patients with HF and iron deficiency, anemia, hypertension, sleep disorders, type 2 diabetes, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, and malignancy.