Today I post the Introduction from SCAT5©: SPORT CONCUSSION ASSESSMENT TOOL — 5TH EDITION. DEVELOPED BY THE CONCUSSION IN SPORT GROUP
FOR USE BY MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS ONLY. [Link is to the 8 page PDF]
Here is the Introduction [First page of the above PDF]:
WHAT IS THE SCAT5?
The SCAT5 is a standardized tool for evaluating concussions
designed for use by physicians and licensed healthcare
professionals1. The SCAT5 cannot be performed correctly
in less than 10 minutes.
If you are not a physician or licensed healthcare professional,
please use the Concussion Recognition Tool 5 (CRT5). The
SCAT5 is to be used for evaluating athletes aged 13 years
and older. For children aged 12 years or younger, please
use the Child SCAT5.
Preseason SCAT5 baseline testing can be useful for
interpreting post-injury test scores, but is not required for
that purpose.Detailed instructions for use of the SCAT5 are
provided on page 7. Please read through these instructions
carefully before testing the athlete. Brief verbal instructions
for each test are given in italics. The only equipment required
for the tester is a watch or timer.
This tool may be freely copied in its current form for distribution to individuals, teams, groups and organizations. It should not be altered in any way, re-branded or sold for commercial gain. Any revision, translation or reproduction in a digital form requires specific approval by the Concussion in Sport Group.
Recognise and Remove*
A head impact by either a direct blow or indirect transmission
of force can be associated with a serious and potentially fatal
brain injury. If there are significant concerns, including any
of the red flags listed in Box 1, then activation of emergency
procedures and urgent transport to the nearest hospital
should be arranged.
* See also:
- A video review of multiple concussion signs in National Rugby League match play [PubMed Abstract] [Full Text HTML] [Full Text PDF]. Sports Med Open. 2018 Dec; 4: 5.
- The six signs that were identified consisted
of clutching or shaking the head, unresponsiveness or loss of consciousness, slowness to get up, gait ataxia, vacant stare, and apparent seizure.
- These signs are specific but not sensitive for concussion. See Table 2: 2 Frequency, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the different combinations of signs demonstrated during the study period.
• Any athlete with suspected concussion should be REMOVED FROM PLAY, medically assessed and monitored for deterioration. No athlete diagnosed with concussion
should be returned to play on the day of injury.
• If an athlete is suspected of having a concussion and
medical personnel are not immediately available, the
athlete should be referred to a medical facility for urgent
• Athletes with suspected concussion should not drink
alcohol, use recreational drugs and should not drive a motor vehicle until cleared to do so by a medical professional.
• Concussion signs and symptoms evolve over time and it
is important to consider repeat evaluation in the assessment of concussion.
• The diagnosis of a concussion is a clinical judgment,
made by a medical professional. The SCAT5 should NOT
be used by itself to make, or exclude, the diagnosis of
concussion. An athlete may have a concussion even if
their SCAT5 is “normal”.
• The basic principles of first aid (danger, response, airway,
breathing, circulation) should be followed.
• Do not attempt to move the athlete (other than that required
for airway management) unless trained to do so.
• Assessment for a spinal cord injury is a critical part of the
initial on-field assessment.
• Do not remove a helmet or any other equipment unless
trained to do so safely.