For an outstanding introduction to autonomic regulation of the immune system, please see Dr. Kevin Tracy‘s* lecture, Keynote: Autonomic Regulation of the Immune System, 1:02:44, Mar 23, 2022, from Dysautonomia International.
*Link is to the Google scholarly citations list of Dr. Tracy.
Today, I link to and excerpt from Noninvasive sub-organ ultrasound stimulation for targeted neuromodulation [PubMed Abstract] [Full-Text HTML] [Full-Text PDF]. Nat Commun. 2019; 10: 952.
Published online 2019 Mar 12. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08750-9
Here are links to 82 similar articles in PubMed.
Here are links to 55 citations of the above resource in PubMed.
Tools for noninvasively modulating neural signaling in peripheral organs will advance the study of nerves and their effect on homeostasis and disease. Herein, we demonstrate a noninvasive method to modulate specific signaling pathways within organs using ultrasound (U/S). U/S is first applied to spleen to modulate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP), and US stimulation is shown to reduce cytokine response to endotoxin to the same levels as implant-based vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Next, hepatic U/S stimulation is shown to modulate pathways that regulate blood glucose and is as effective as VNS in suppressing the hyperglycemic effect of endotoxin exposure. This response to hepatic U/S is only found when targeting specific sub-organ locations known to contain glucose sensory neurons, and both molecular (i.e. neurotransmitter concentration and cFOS expression) and neuroimaging results indicate US induced signaling to metabolism-related hypothalamic sub-nuclei. These data demonstrate that U/S stimulation within organs provides a new method for site-selective neuromodulation to regulate specific physiological functions.Subject terms: Ultrasound, Peripheral nervous system, Inflammation