For links to detailed resources on infant and child development see my post Pediatric Developmental Milestones – Resources From The Centers For Disease Control, October 16, 2017.
The following are excerpts from Developmental Milestones in the ED from Pediatric EM Morsels by Dr. Sean Fox:
Developmental Milestones Basics
- Classically, childhood developmental milestones are divided into different domains:
- Motor delays may be the first and most obvious sign of a global developmental disorder (Nortiz, 2013).
- Not every kid develops at the same rate, but they generally should progress through the expected milestones in order.
Typical Infant Developmental Milestones
- Again, kids achieve milestones are various paces… so these are just estimates… but can help define marked abnormalities.
- Head Posture / Control
- 8 weeks – can hold head up while prone
- 12 weeks – has some head lag when being pulled from supine position
- 20 weeks – no head lag
- 6 months – complete head control
- Fine Motor
- 2 months – grasps offered item
- 4 months – reaches for objects. Brings hands to mouth (now we are in trouble)
- 6 months – transfers objects form one hand to another
- Gross Motor
- 2 months – begins to push up while prone
- 4 months – able to roll from tummy to back (essentially pushes self over). Bears weight on legs when feet are on a surface. Sits with curved spine.
- 6 months – able to roll from back to tummy. Can sit without support.
- 9 months – sits with straight spine.
- 18 months – should sit, stand, and walk independently.
- Social / Language
- 2 months – attempts to look at parents. Smiles. Coos.
- 4 months – smiles at people spontaneously.
- 6 months – indicates desire to be picked up. Knows familiar faces and recognizes when someone is a stranger. Babbles.
- 9 months – the height of separation anxiety! Plays “peek-a-boo” and waves “bye-bye.” Understands “No.”
- 12 months – knows one – two words.
- 18 months – knows three – six words (body parts often).
- 24 months – uses two word phrases.
- 36 months – uses three word sentences.
- Language and Social milestones are closely tied with Cognitive milestones, particularly early on.
- 2 months – regards faces, has differential coos and cries and can indicate wants.
- 4 months – reaches for objects, uses hands and eyes together.
- 6 months – shows curiosity. Uses visual and oral exploration of environment.
- 9 months – has object permanence (looks for item when it is hidden). Learns interactive games.
- 12 months – can follow simple instructions. Bangs objects together.
Developmental Milestones in the ED
BY SEAN FOX · PUBLISHED NOVEMBER 14, 2014 · UPDATED JULY 30, 2017