The autonomic nervous system is clearly involved in weight loss (both successful and unsuccessful weight loss).
For an introduction to this subject please review Energy metabolism, fuel selection and body weight regulation [PubMed Abstract] [Full Text HTML] [Full Text PDF]. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008 Dec;32 Suppl 7:S109-19. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2008.246.
And then review Resource (1) below and the very useful links that follow Resource (1).
(1) Baseline Sympathetic Nervous System Activity Predicts Dietary Weight Loss in Obese Metabolic Syndrome Subjects [PubMed Abstract] [Full Text HTML] [Full Text PDF]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Feb;97(2):605-13. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-2320. Epub 2011 Nov 16
This article has been cited eight times in PubMed.
Here are links to 109 similar articles in PubMed.