Link To Toast classification in acute ischemic stroke From Radiopedia

In this post I link to and excerpt from Toast classification in acute ischemic stroke from Radiopaedia, accessed 3/14/2021.

Here are excerpts:

The TOAST (trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment) classification denotes five sub types of ischemic stroke.

  • large-artery atherosclerosis (embolus / thrombosis)*
  • cardioembolism (high-risk / medium-risk)*
  • small-vessel occlusion (lacune)*
  • stroke of other determined etiology *
  • stroke of undetermined etiology

It is thought to carry good inter observer agreement and predict prognosis, outcome, and management


  • 1. Goldstein LB, Jones MR, Matchar DB et-al. Improving the reliability of stroke subgroup classification using the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. Stroke. 2001;32 (5): 1091-8. Stroke (full text) – Pubmed citation
  • 2. Adams HP, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ et-al. Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Stroke. 1993;24 (1): 35-41. Stroke (link) – Pubmed citation
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