In this post I link to and list some of the articles I found when I ran a Google search on “Scholarly Articles On Ketamine Clinics For Depression And Anxiety” accessed 8-29-2022.
- • Response to ketamine induction in the community is ∼ 50%; remission rate is 30%.
- • 8% of patients worsen during ketamine induction for depression.
- • Ketamine induction reduces suicidal ideation in a majority of patients.
- • Durability of antidepressant response after ketamine induction is ∼ 60% at 8 weeks.
Outcomes of ketamine intravenous therapy (KIT) for depression in real-world care settings have been minimally evaluated. We set out to quantify treatment response to KIT in a large sample of patients from community-based practices.
We retrospectively analyzed 9016 depression patients who received KIT between 2016 and 2020 at one of 178 community practices across the United States. Depression symptoms were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The induction phase of KIT was defined to be a series of 4–8 infusions administered over 7 to 28 days.
Among the 537 patients who underwent induction and had sufficient data, 53.6% of patients showed a response (≥ 50% reduction in PHQ-9 score) at 14–31 days post-induction and 28.9% remitted (PHQ-9 score drop to < 5). The effect size was d = 1.5. Among patients with baseline suicidal ideation (SI), 73.0% exhibited a reduction in SI. A subset (8.4%) of patients experienced an increase in depressive symptoms after induction while 6.0% of patients reported increased SI. The response rate was uniform across 4 levels of baseline depression severity. However, more severe illness was weakly correlated with a greater drop in scores while remission status was weakly inversely correlated with depression severity. Kaplan-Meier hanalyses showed that a patient who responds to KIT induction has approximately 80% probability of sustaining response at 4 weeks and approximately 60% probability at 8 weeks, even without maintenance infusions.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious psychiatric illness that causes functional impairment in many people. While monoaminergic antidepressants have been used to effectively treat MDD, these antidepressants have limitations in that they have delayed onset of action and many patients remain treatment-resistant. Therefore, there is a need to develop antidepressants with a novel target, and researchers have directed their attention to the glutamatergic system. Ketamine, although developed as an anesthetic, has been found to produce an antidepressant effect at sub-anesthetic doses via N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor blockade as well as NMDA receptor- independent pathways. A single infusion of ketamine produced rapid improvement in clinical symptoms to a considerable level and led to the resolution of serious depressive symptoms, including imminent suicidal ideation, in patients with MDD. A series of recent randomized controlled trials have provided a high level of evidence for the therapeutic efficacy of ketamine treatment in MDD and presented new insights on the dose, usage, and route of administration of ketamine as an antidepressant. With this knowledge, it is expected that ketamine treatment protocols for MDD will be established as a treatment option available in clinical practice. However, long-term safety must be taken into consideration as ketamine has abuse potential and it is associated with psychological side effects such as dissociative or psychotomimetic effects.Keywords: Ketamine, Major depressive disorder, Antidepressant, N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist
The Ketamine Cure-The once-taboo drug has been repurposed to treat depression and is even available for delivery. But how safe is it? New York Times, By David Dodge
Published Nov. 4, 2021, Updated Nov. 5, 2021.
Ketamine — an anesthetic first popular with the 1970s counterculture movement and then as a club drug known as “Special K” — has recently emerged as a promising mental health treatment. Unlike conventional antidepressants, which work by increasing serotonin levels, ketamine appears to impact a neurotransmitter called glutamate, which is thought to play a role in regulating mood.
In early trials, patients suffering from a wide range of drug-resistant mood disorders — including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and social anxiety disorder — have seen symptoms improve, often immediately.
Thanks to these success stories, hundreds of new ketamine providers have popped up across the country. Typically patients take ketamine through an IV, nasal spray or tablet once or twice a week for six to eight weeks (though some may need to take it longer). Sessions last between one and two hours and can cause feelings of dissociation, or feeling disconnected from reality, and euphoria.
Ketamine’s success in early trials has surprised and excited researchers who study mood disorders, a field where drugs like Prozac and Zoloft, paired with talk therapy, have been the main treatment options for decades. But, as with Mr. Gathman, interventions don’t work for up to 30 percent of those suffering from major depression.