In addition to the test sheet from LabCorp below, review
- Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency (Beriberi) from StatPearls, Kimberly D. Wiley; Mohit Gupta. Last Update: June 22, 2020.
- Wernke Encephalopathy – Great Help From Dr Josh Farkas and His Internet Book Of Critical Care
Posted on October 15, 2020 by Tom Wade MD
Test sheet from LabCorp:
Vitamin B1, Whole Blood
TEST: 121186 Test number copied CPT: 84425
- B1 Vitamin, Whole Blood
- Thiamine, Whole Blood
Expected Turnaround Time
4 – 6 days
Turnaround time is defined as the usual number of days from the date of pickup of a specimen for testing to when the result is released to the ordering provider. In some cases, additional time should be allowed for additional confirmatory or additional reflex tests. Testing schedules may vary.
Whole blood, frozen
Lavender-top (EDTA) tube
Draw blood. Do not separate. Transfer to a plastic transport tube. Freeze. To avoid delays in turnaround time when requesting multiple tests on frozen samples, please submit separate frozen specimens for each test requested.
For the assessment of thiamine deficiency
The biologically active form of the vitamin, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), is best measured in whole blood and is not found in measurable concentration in plasma. Plasma thiamine concentration reflects recent intake rather than body stores; therefore, whole blood is the preferred specimen for thiamine assessment.
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by LabCorp. It has not been cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration.
Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS)
Vitamin B1 refers to a group of compounds that include thiamin and its phosphate esters: thiamine monophosphate (TMP), thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), and thiamine triphosphate.1-5 All living organisms require thiamine, but it is only synthesized by bacteria, fungi, and plants. Thus, thiamine is an essential nutrient for animals that must obtain it from their diets. The principal biologically active form of thiamine is the pyrophosphate, TPP, which serves as a coenzyme for essential decarboxylation reactions by which carbohydrates, fats, and alcohol are metabolized to produce energy. Thiamine serves a role in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). TPP also facilitates the production of reducing substances involved in oxidant stress defenses, as well as for the synthesis of nucleic acid precursors.5 Thiamine triphosphate serves an important role in the regulation of ion channels of the nervous system.2
Primary thiamine deficiency is most common in underdeveloped countries due to poor oral intake or diets consisting of non-enriched grains.1,5-8 The most common causes of thiamine deficiency in more affluent countries are alcoholism or malnutrition in nonalcoholic patients.5 Secondary thiamine deficiency can occur due to impaired gastrointestinal absorption related to disease or bariatric surgery. Consumption of anti-thiamin enzymes found in raw fish, ferns and betel nuts can reduce the absorption of thiamin.6 A relative thiamine deficiency can also occur in patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition therapy, in prolonged diarrheas, and in impaired utilization conditions such as in severe liver disease.5 Conditions that increase metabolic requirements for thiamine such as hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, lactation, and systemic infections with or without fever have been associated with thiamin deficiency. Increased gastrointestinal or renal losses, especially for patients on hemodialysis, can be a risk factor as well as advanced age, diabetes mellitus, AIDS, malignancies and any critical illness.5,7
The earliest symptoms of thiamine deficiency are nonspecific and include fatigue, irritation, poor memory, sleep disturbances, anorexia, abdominal discomfort, and constipation.5 Severe thiamin deficiency is rare and can present as congestive heart failure (wet beriberi), peripheral neuropathy (dry beriberi), Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and/or Korsakoff syndrome.3-5
Dry beriberi is characterized by central and peripheral neuropathy that can be permanent even following thiamin repletion.3,4 Clinical signs of dry beriberi are bilateral and symmetric, predominantly involving the lower extremities and have been well described in the literature.5 The neurological side effects of thiamin deficiency can progress to Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and Korsakoff psychosis.3,5,7,9 This diagnosis denotes the acute cerebral manifestation of severe thiamine deficiency that can lead to irreversible memory loss and dementia.5,7,9 Patients with WE present with nystagmus, ophthalmoplegia, mental-status changes, and unsteadiness of stance and gait.9,10 Korsakoff psychosis, an irreversible amnestic confabulatory state, can be the initial presentation in some patients, or it may be a sequel to WE.7 These patients present with clinical manifestations that are highly variable that can include oculomotor abnormalities, gait disturbance, and global confusion with retrograde amnesia, cognitive impairment, and confabulation.3
Wet beriberi refers to a thiamine deficiency condition where impaired cardiac performance leads to systemic symptoms.4,5 In the initial stages of wet beriberi, high cardiac output produces peripheral vasodilation with warm extremities and excessive sweating.5 As the heart starts to fail further symptoms including tachycardia, a wide pulse pressure and lactic acidosis develop, leading to salt and water retention in the kidneys.5 The resulting fluid overload leads to edema of the dependent extremities.5 A more rapidly progressing form of wet beriberi has been referred to as acute fulminant cardiovascular beriberi or Shoshin beriberi, in which vasodilation continues, resulting in shock in a patient with heart failure.5
The signs and symptoms of wet beriberi and similar to those associated with heart failure from other causes. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of thiamine deficiency is increased in heart failure patients relative to the general population.4,7,11-15 It has been postulated that thiamin deficiency may actually exacerbate underlying heart failure symptoms.3,6 Research has shown that correction of thiamin deficiency can improve left ventricular ejection fraction, an indicator of long term prognosis in heart failure patients.3,16-18 Malnutrition, advanced age, frequent hospitalization, and use of diuretic medications have all been shown to increase the risk of thiamin deficiency in patients with HF.4,7
The levels of TPP in plasma or serum are very low relative to the erythrocyte. Plasma contains mainly thiamine and TMP, whereas TPP predominates in erythrocytes.20 TPP accounts for 90% of the thiamine content in whole blood.2 The TPP concentration in erythrocytes correlates with that in whole blood, a characteristic that allows the use of whole blood, rather than washed erythrocytes, for thiamine assessment.2,19,20 Thus, whole blood is the preferred sample type for analysis of thiamine concentration.
Footnotes1. Ball GFM. Vitamins: their role in the human body. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 2004:273-288.2. Lu J, Frank EL. Rapid HPLC measurement of thiamine and its phosphate esters in whole blood. Clin Chem. 2008 May;54(5):901-906. PubMed 183562413. Wooley JA. Characteristics of thiamin and its relevance to the management of heart failure. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008 Oct-Nov;23(5):487-493. PubMed 188495534. Azizi-Namini P, Ahmed M, Yan AT, Keith M. The role of B vitamins in the management of heart failure. Nutr Clin Pract. 2012 Jun;27(3):363-374. PubMed 225169405. Fattal-Valevski A. Thiamine (Vitamin B1). J Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Med. 2011;16:12-20.10.1177/15332101103929416. Ahmed M, Azizi-Namini P, Yan AT, Keith M. Thiamin deficiency and heart failure: the current knowledge and gaps in literature. Heart Fail Rev. 2014 May 9.10.1007/s10741-014-9432-07. Sriram K, Manzanares W, Joseph K. Thiamine in nutrition therapy. Nutr Clin Pract. 2012 Feb;27(1):41-50. PubMed 222236668. Lonsdale D. A review of the biochemistry, metabolism and clinical benefits of thiamin(e) and its derivatives. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Mar;3(1):49-59. PubMed 165502239. Kumar N. Neurologic presentations of nutritional deficiencies. Neurol Clin. 2010 Feb;28(1):107-170. PubMed 1993237910. Sechi G, Serra A. Wernicke’s encephalopathy: new clinical settings and recent advances in diagnosis and management. Lancet Neurol. 2007 May;6(5):442-455. PubMed 1743409911. Hanninen SA, Darling PB, Sole MJ, Barr A, Keith ME. The prevalence of thiamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Jan;47(2):354-361. PubMed 16412860
12. McKeag NA, McKinley MC, Woodside JV, Harbinson MT, McKeown PP. The role of micronutrients in heart failure. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Jun;112(6):870-886.PubMed 2270981413. Keith ME, Walsh NA, Darling PB, et al. B-vitamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with heart failure. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Aug;109(8):1406-1410.PubMed 1963104714. Soukoulis V, Dihu JB, Sole M, et al. Micronutrient deficiencies an unmet need in heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Oct;54(18):1660-1673.PubMed 1985020615. Zenuk C, Healey J, Donnelly J, Valliancourt R, Almalki Y, Smith S. Thiamine deficiency in congestive heart failure patients receiving long-term furosemide therapy. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Winter;10:184-188.PubMed 1471232316. Levy WC, Soine LA, Huth MM, Fishbein DP. Thiamin deficiency in congestive heart failure. Am J Med. 1992 Dec;93:705-706.PubMed 146637217. Shimon I, Almog S, Vered Z, et al. Improved left ventricular function after thiamine supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure receiving long-term furosemide therapy. Am J Med. 1995 May;98(5):485-490.PubMed 773312818. Mendoza CE, Rodriguez F, Rosenberg DG. Reversal of refractory congestive heart failure after thiamine supplementation: report of a case and review of literature. J CardiovascPharmacol Ther. 2003 Dec;8(4):313-316.PubMed 1474008119. Talwar D, Davidson H, Cooney J, St JO’Reilly D. Vitamin B(1) status assessed by direct measurement of thiamin pyrophosphate in erythrocytes or whole blood by HPLC: comparison with erythrocyte transketolase activation assay. Clin Chem. 2000 May;46(5):704-710.PubMed 1079475420. Losa R, Sierra MI, Fernández A, Blanco D, Buesa JM. Determination of thiamine and its phosphorylated forms in human plasma, erythrocytes and urine by HPLC and fluorescence detection: a preliminary study on cancer patients. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Apr 29;37(5):1025-1029.PubMed 15862682
ReferencesInstruction Manual for the HPLC Analysis of Vitamin B1 in Whole Blood, Chromsystems. IM 35000 VITB1 E Dec 2003 R1.