Link To “Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis” From Radiopedia

Here is the link to Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis from Radiopedia, last revised by Dr Henry Knipe on 06 May 2020:

Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a thrombus in the iliac vein (commonexternal or internal) and/or common femoral vein obstructs the venous outflow from the lower limb leading to marked edema. DVT of the IVC or the more distal lower limb veins may also be present.

Deep vein thrombus of the lower limb deep venous system distal to the common femoral vein is termed distal, femoropopliteal or infrainguinal DVT 3.

Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis accounts for ~25% of all cases of DVT.

Clinical presentation may be identical to that of a distal DVT i.e. lower limb swelling and pain. However, as patients with iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis are at clear risk of lower limb ischemia, phlegmasia cerulea dolens needs to be excluded as it can be limb- or life-threatening. Findings for this entity may include severe lower limb pain, gross edema, cyanosis, pulselessness, blistering of the skin, and eventual gangrene 4.

Ultrasonography with Doppler is generally the first-line imaging modality for assessing lower limb DVT with high sensitivity (95%) and specificity (96%) 4. This equally applies to DVT of the common femoral veins as for the more distal deep venous system.

However, the diagnosis of DVT of the pelvic veins can be very difficult, if not impossible, with ultrasound, due to multiple factors including bowel gas, large body habitus, normal anatomic depth of the vessels and abdominal pain. Iliac and IVC thrombosis will often require CT and/or MRI.

CT venography and/or MR venography of the pelvis may be required to evaluate the pelvic veins for DVT.

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