Links To And Excerpts From The Curbsiders’ #244 Vulvovagnitis

In this post I link to and excerpt from The Curbsiders‘ Nov 30, 2020 podcast and post, #244 Vulvovaginitis for All Ages with Dr. Monica Christmas, by SARAH PHOEBE ROBERTS:


Here again is the link to #244 podcast and show notes.

Here is the CDC resource on Vaginal Candidiasis.

If you are a healthcare provider, please refer to:

Here is the CDC web page on Bacterial Vaginosis.

Here is the the link CDC 2015 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

Here are the references from #244:




  • Kairys N, Garg M. Bacterial Vaginosis. [Updated 2020 Jul 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan. Available from:
  • Iavazzo C, Gkegkes ID, Zarkada IM, Falagas ME. Boric acid for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: the clinical evidence. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011;20(8):1245-1255. doi:10.1089/jwh.2010.2708
  • Watson CJ, Pirotta M, Myers SP, Myers P. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis–results of a practitioner survey. Complement Ther Med. 2012;20(4):218-221. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2012.01.004
  • Parma M, Stella Vanni V, Bertini M, Candiani M. Probiotics in the prevention of recurrences of bacterial vaginosis. Altern Ther Health Med. 2014;20 Suppl 1:52-57.
  • Recine N, Palma E, Domenici L, et al. Restoring vaginal microbiota: biological control of bacterial vaginosis. A prospective case-control study using Lactobacillus rhamnosus BMX 54 as adjuvant treatment against bacterial vaginosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016;293(1):101-107. doi:10.1007/s00404-015-3810-2
  • Forcey DS, Vodstrcil LA, Hocking JS, et al. Factors Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis among Women Who Have Sex with Women: A Systematic Review. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0141905. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141905
  • Plummer EL, Vodstrcil LA, Fairley CK, et al. Sexual practices have a significant impact on the vaginal microbiota of women who have sex with women. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):19749. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-55929-7


  • Portman DJ, Gass MLS, Vulvovaginal Atrophy Terminology Consensus Conference Panel. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: new terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health and the North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2014;21(10):1063-1068. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000000329
  • Smith AL, Wein AJ. Estrogen replacement therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal genitourinary tract dysfunction. Discov Med. 2010;10(55):500-510.
  • Lethaby A, Ayeleke RO, Roberts H. Local oestrogen for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(8):CD001500. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001500.pub3
  • Cody JD, Jacobs ML, Richardson K, Moehrer B, Hextall A. Oestrogen therapy for urinary incontinence in post-menopausal women. Cochrane Incontinence Group, ed. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Published online October 17, 2012. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001405.pub3
  • Cano A, Estévez J, Usandizaga R, et al. The therapeutic effect of a new ultra low concentration estriol gel formulation (0.005% estriol vaginal gel) on symptoms and signs of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy:  results from a pivotal phase III study. Menopause. 2012;19(10):1130-1139. doi:10.1097/gme.0b013e3182518e9a
  • Bertoli, H.K., Rasmussen, C.L., Sand, F.L., Albieri, V., Norrild, B., Verdoodt, F. and Kjaer, S.K. (2019), Human papillomavirus and p16 in squamous cell carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vagina. Int. J. Cancer, 145: 78-86.


*These image galleries primarily feature the presentation of vulvovaginal conditions in patients with light/white skin tones. There are, unfortunately, far fewer comparable image libraries that feature skin of color. The following are resources that may be helpful in identifying vulvovaginal and dermatological conditions in Black and Brown patients:

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